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LockOn: Flaming Cliffs 2
Flight school
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Eagle Dynamics The Fighter Collection

Flight school

1. Introduction: changing direction with pitch, roll and yaw
2. Taxi and Takeoff
3. Aileron roll
4. Split-S and Immelman
5. Visual landing

1. Introduction: changing direction with pitch, roll and yaw

1. Welcome to the LockOn basic flight training course aboard the A-10A Thunderbolt-II, affectionately dubbed the Warthog.
During the mission, do not change views or zoom levels.
2. The A-10 was developed in the U.S. and is a reliable, sturdy, and easy to fly close air support aircraft powered by two turbofan engines.
3. This will be an introductory lesson describing some of the flight information presented on the Heads Up Display (HUD) and essential flight control in pitch, roll, and yaw.
4. You can take control of the aircraft or exit the mission at any time by pressing the "ESC" key. To pause the lesson, if you need time to re-read the subtitles again, press the "PAUSE" key.
5. Toward the top of the HUD you can see the Total Velocity Vector or TVV and pitch ladder. The TVV will always indicate the aircraft's current velocity vector or direction of travel. For example: if you are approaching a hill, you can place the TVV just over the ridge to pass just over it.
6. The pitch ladder duplicates the artificial horizon on the front dash and indicates the vertical position of the aircraft's longitudinal axis relative to the horizon.
7. The pitch ladder is marked in 5 degree increments. The solid line at 0-degrees represents the horizon. Above it are shorter solid lines to indicate above-horizon positive pitch angles and below it are shorter dashed lines to indicate below-horizon negative pitch angles.
8. When the aircraft is rolled, the pitch ladder remains stabilized to the horizon to indicate the aircraft's roll even when the horizon itself is not visible.
9. The left side of the HUD displays a digital readout of the indicated airspeed (IAS) in knots (nautical miles per hour).
10. The right side of the HUD displays a digital readout of the barometric altitude above sea level (ASL).
11. The current pitch angle is displayed below the barometric altitude readout. A negative readout indicates negative pitch and a positive readout indicates positive pitch.
12. The radar altitude readout is displayed below the radar altitude scale and can be identified by the letter 'R'. It is only displayed on the HUD when the aircraft is below 5,000 feet and rolled no more than 45 degrees. Otherwise, the radar altimeter isn't able to receive signal reflections from the ground.
13. The heading tape is displayed under the pitch ladder. The triangle carat indicates your current heading.
14. Using the HUD, you can fly the aircraft with no outside visibility. This is all you will need to know about the HUD for the purposes of this lesson.
15. To change aircraft pitch, i.e. raise or drop the nose, you need to manipulate the elevators by pulling or pushing on the control stick.
16. To roll the aircraft around its longitudinal axis, you need to manipulate the ailerons by moving the stick to the left or right.
17. You can also change the aircraft's direction by the using rudder controls. Pushing the left pedal or pressing "Z" on the keyboard will yaw the nose to the left and pushing the right pedal or pressing "X" on the keyboard will yaw the nose to the right.
18. Because the aircraft is equipped with a yaw dampener, it is rarely necessary to use the rudder in flight, with the exceptions of an engine failure or a spin.
19. You can see the Sukhumi airport now to our low left, with the majestic Caucasus straight ahead.
20. Take note of our current flight parameters. We are flying at 5,000 feet and accelerating to 300 knots on a heading of 360. As we climb and dive, monitor the pitch ladder, the altitude display on the right side of the HUD, and the indicated airspeed (IAS)on the left side of the HUD.
21. This is a climb. Note the positive angle of the pitch ladder, increasing altitude and decreasing airspeed.
22. This is a dive. Note the negative angle of the pitch ladder, dropping altitude and increasing airspeed.
23. Changing heading with a rolled turn requires small movements on the control stick. Let's roll the aircraft approximately 30 degrees and watch the heading scale to monitor the progress of the turn.
24. Let's increase the bank angle to 60 degrees. While the turn rate increases, the nose begins to drop, because of the reduced lift as a result of the bank angle. To compensate, we need to pull the stick gently back and increase engine power to maintain altitude and airspeed.
25. As soon as our heading is reversed, i.e. becomes 180 degrees, I will roll the aircraft in the opposite direction by applying left stick and maintain the turn until we are back on a heading of 360.
26. Practice until you can perform turns like these with a deviation of no more than 200 feet and 20 knots. When you are able to do so repeatedly, you will be flying professionally.
27. Now it's time for you to try.

2. Taxi and Takeoff

1. Welcome to the taxi and take-off training lesson aboard the MiG-29. This Russian fighter is powered by two turbofan engines and is equipped with a number of onboard systems allowing it to conduct combat missions around the clock and in all weather conditions.
2. In this lesson, we will discuss some of the aircraft systems and practice starting the engines, taxiing, and taking off. You can take control of the aircraft or exit the mission at any time by pressing the "ESC" key. To pause the lesson, press the "PAUSE" key.
3. To start the engines, first set the throttles to Idle and then turn on the navigation lights by pressing "RCTRL-L". To start the left engine, press "RALT-HOME" and check the corresponding caution light on the caution lights panel.
4. You can see the caution light turn off as the engine continues to spool up. If you need to shut down an engine, press "RALT-END" for the left engine and "RCTRL-END" for the right engine.
5. Monitor the spool-up process by watching the engine RPM indicator and listening to the engine to ensure that RPM is climbing. At the same time, monitor the engine exhaust gas temperature (EGT)to make sure the engine does not over-heat.
6. The left engine is now spooled-up and running at an Idle power setting of 65% RPM and a normal EGT, indicating that the start was successful. Now start the right engine by pressing "RCTRL-HOME" and monitor the RPM and EGT.
7. While the right engine is spooling up, let"s take a look at the instrument panel.
8. This is the Indicated Airspeed (IAS)indicator, showing the current IAS between 0 and 1,000 km/h.
9. This is the barometric or pressure altimeter, showing the current altitude above sea level (ASL)in meters.
10. This is the Vertical Velocity Indicator (VVI) , which includes a turn and slip indicator. This instrument shows the aircraft"s current climb and descent rates, as well as turn rate and slip angle. The VVI is marked up to 200 m/s of climb and descent. The turn indicator is marked up to 3 degrees/s. The slip indicator is not marked and is used to coordinate turns by keeping the ball centered in the tube.
11. This is the Mechanical Devices Indicator, which shows the current state of the landing gear, flaps, airbrake and braking chute.
Now we have enough information to complete this training lesson.
12. Lower the flaps to the take-off position by pressing the "F" key and monitoring the Mechanical Devices Indicator.
13. Control engine thrust by moving the throttle or by pressing the "+" and "-" keys.
14. Turn on the taxi lights by pressing "RALT-L".
Increase RPM to overcome the standing inertia and start rolling.
Close the canopy by pressing "LCTRL-C".
15. As soon as the aircraft begins to move, check the wheel brakes with a short press of the "W" key.
16. To turn the aircraft, use left and right rudder input or press the "Z" and "X" keys. In general, try to keep the aircraft moving along the white taxi lines along the center of the tarmac. Control your speed with the throttle and wheel brakes to keep it between 20-30 km/h.
17. The runway threshold is on our right. Reduce power and apply the wheel brakes to stop, and visually check for traffic to runway 22.
18. There are the famous "Swifts" flight demonstration team, flying MiG-29s not too dissimilar to our own. They are practicing a high speed turn over the runway.
19. Contact the tower to request clearance to taxi by pressing the "", "F6" and "F2" keys.
20. Now that the runway is clear, we can taxi out to the runway and stop to wait for take-off clearance.
21. Contact the tower and request take-off clearance by pressing the "", "F6" and "F4" keys.
22. Before starting the take-off roll, apply wheel brakes, increase power to 90% and monitor the engine performance for about 3 seconds to ensure normal engine operation. With final checks complete and no signs of trouble, release the brakes and increase power to 100%. Keep the aircraft rolling down the centerline by use of the rudders.
23. Once your speed climbs to 250 km/h, gently pull the stick and wait until the nose of the aircraft is raised to about 10 degrees. Maintain this angle. Once the VVI begins to show a positive rate of climb, raise the landing gear by pressing the "G" key and monitor the Mechanical Devices Indicator to ensure successful landing gear retraction.
24. As you pass 100 m of altitude, retract the flaps by pressing the "F" key and increase the pitch angle to 20 degrees. The aircraft may sink slightly as the flaps are raised, so be ready to compensate if necessary but don't over-control.
25. Now that the aircraft is configured for normal flight, we will continue to gain airspeed and approach our assigned altitude and heading.
26. For more detailed information about the instrumentation and systems of the MiG-29, please reference the Flight Manual.
27. This concludes the taxi and take-off training lesson. Press the "ESC" key to take control of the aircraft or exit the lesson.

3. Aileron roll

1. Welcome to the Aileron Roll training flight aboard the MiG-29. You can take control of the aircraft or exit the mission at any time by pressing the "ESC" key. To pause the lesson, press the "PAUSE" key.
2. The aileron roll is one of the most well-known aircraft maneuvers, during which, the plane rolls 360 degrees around its axis.
3. Here's an example of what an aileron rolls looks like.
4. The aileron roll is fundamental to other more complex maneuvers including inverted flight or the Immelman turn. We'll discuss those in later lessons.
5. To practice, take note of your flight parameters: in this case an altitude of 1,000 m, an airspeed 700 km/h, and a heading of 270 degrees.
6. To perform an aileron roll, pull slightly back on the stick to pitch the nose up to about 8 degrees, then return the stick to neutral.Slowly roll the aircraft to the left and note that when the aircraft is inverted, the nose will drop to the horizon. Stop the roll by pushing the stick back to the right and make adjustments to return the aircraft to a wings-level.
7. If the maneuver is flown correctly, the aircraft should not deviate significantly from its initial flight parameters.
8. Now it's time for you to try an aileron roll.

4. Split-S and Immelman

1. Good morning. Today we're in the cockpit of the A-10 passing over a training range where we will practice the Split-S and Immelman Turn maneuvers. These are famous air combat maneuvers invented during the first World War and still used today.
2. You can take control of the aircraft at any point or exit the mission by pressing the "ESC" key. If you need to pause the lesson, press the "PAUSE" key.
3. The Immelman and the Split-S are simple but effective vertical maneuvers that allow a rapid reversal of heading.
4. The Split-S exchanges altitude for speed and is often an effective method of extending out of a fight.
5. The Immelman exchanges speed for altitude and is useful for "hit and run" tactics.
6. To perform a Split-S, you'll first need to perform half an aileron roll to become inverted and then pull back on the stick to initiate a dive while reducing engine power to avoid gaining too much speed.
7. Keep the stick held back until the aircraft approaches the horizon and then return the stick to neutral to level out.
8. To perform an Immelman Turn, first move the throttles to full power.
9. From level flight and at least an airspeed of 330 km/h, pull back on the stick to begin the climb.
10. Keep the stick pulled back until the aircraft begins to approach the horizon on its back. As the pitch ladder reaches positive 10 degrees of pitch, perform a half an aileron roll to level out.
11. Now it's time for you to try a Split-S and an Immelman Turn.

5. Visual Landing

1. Welcome to the Visual Approach training flight in the Su-25.
2. You can take over control of the aircraft at any time or exit the mission by pressing the "ESC" key. To pause the lesson, press the "PAUSE" key.
3. Our aircraft is not carrying any external stores and is loaded with only 50% of fuel capacity. Our current weight is 11 tones. We are currently in level flight at 600 m. with an airspeed of 500 km/h. We are on the base leg to finals for runway 04 of Krymsk airfield.
4. A visual approach is possible in good visibility conditions with no clouds or fog around the airfield.
5. It's very important to monitor the surrounding airspace. Control the aircraft visually by referencing the horizon to parts of the cockpit and canopy railing, while routinely checking your flight instruments, including airspeed, altitude, and vertical velocity.
6. Let's reduce our power to Idle.
7. Once the airspeed drops below 370 km/h, extend the landing gear by pressing the "G" key. Monitor the Mechanical Devices Indicator to check that the gear has been extended and locked, indicated by the 3 green lights.
8. Slow down to around 350 km/h and extend the flaps to the maneuver position by pressing the "F" key. As the flaps extend, the nose may pitch up slightly. Compensate for this by carefully pushing forward on the stick. The aircraft will continue to slow down.
9. When airspeed drops to 320 km/h, extend the flaps to "full flaps" by pressing "Shift-F" and increase engine power to 70%.
10. Before turning on final, check again for any traffic in your airspace. The turn starts when the runway is off your wing.
11. To maintain correct glideslope, keep engine power between 50 and 60% RPM and maintain a descent rate between 3 and 4 m/s with an airspeed of around 270 km/h.
12. After configuring the aircraft for landing and stabilizing the approach, trim the flight controls.
13. The easiest way to maintain correct glideslope is to keep the flare point, which should be about 100 meters prior to the runway threshold, at the same relative position at the center of the HUD. This will ensure a precise approach toward the flare point.
14. If the flare point begins to drift downward from the HUD reference point, the aircraft is climbing above glideslope and you will need to reduce power. If the flare point is drifting upward, you will need to increase power.
15. As we approach the runway, reduce speed to 260 km/h as you pass over the runway threshold. Slowly reduce engine power to Idle. As airspeed bleeds off, slowly increase pitch until you reach the correct landing pitch angle and wait for the main gears to touch down.
16. The main gears have touched down. After lowering the nose gear, release the braking chute by pressing the "P" key and apply the wheel brakes by pressing the "W" key.
17. Now slow down to taxi speed.
18. An important note to remember is that the heavier the aircraft is, the higher the approach and landing speed will be.
19. We'll now taxi off the main runway and switch the landing lights to taxi by pressing "RAlt-L".
20. To prevent the aircraft from rolling onto its wings during taxi turns, the Su-25 should not be turned greater than 10 km/h.
21. Retract the flaps and shut down the engines by pressing "RAlt-End" and "RCTRL-End".
Turn off the navigation lights by pressing "RCtrl-L".
22. Isn't it nice to be able to relax in your seat and feel the cool breeze after a safe landing?
23. This concludes our visual landing training lesson.